Curriculum

Orthodontics

Fourth Year, BDS

S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
7  

Anchorage in Orthodontics

 

1. Define anchorage and understand the basis behind it
2. Classification of anchorage and Sources of anchorage.
3. Types of Anchorage in detail.

 

Must know

 

1. Different definitions of anchorage according to different authors.
2.Sources of anchorage :
**Intraoral
**Extraoral
** Muscular

Desirable to know
 

  1. Anchorage loss and its importance in detail during treatment.
  2. Use of mini-implants as anchorage.

.

 

 

Nice to know

S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
8 Orthodontic Appliances- General Concepts

 

1.Definition of orthodontic appliance.
2.Type of removable and Myofunctional
3. The different types of materials like impression material, gypsum products, organic polymer, cement, ceramic and metals, adhesives and bonding agent.
 

Must know

The biological, physical, mechanical, esthetic, hygienic, technical, economic consideration of appliance Desirable to know
S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
9 Myofunctional  Appliances Introduction, Definition and Classification of myofunctional appliances.
2.Indications and contraindications.
3.Components of myofunctional appliances.
4.Case  selection
5. Removable mainly but few fixed functional appliances.

 

 

Must know

 

1.Mechanism of action of functional appliances and basis behind it.
2. How functional appliances work to bring about changes.
4.Treatment principles.
5. Activator appliance in detail
6. Twin Block and Frankel appliance components.

 

Desirable to know
Fixed Functional Appliances:
Herbst and Jasper Jumper

 

Nice to know
S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
10 Extraoral Appliances 1 .Introduction to Orthodontic Appliances.
2.Definition and Classification of orthopaedic appliances.
2.Basis of Orthopedic appliances.
3.Headgear Application
4. Face mask Application
5. Chin cap

 

 

Must know

Headgear in detail:
**Indications
**Components
**Principals of force application
**Types of headgears
Clinical applications
2.Facemask in detail:
** Indications, Components, and types of facemask
4. Chin cap
**Indications, force magnitude

 

Desirable to know
 

1.Biomechanical Considerations of Facemask and Chin cap.
2.Center of resistance of maxilla and mechanics of headgear

Nice to know
S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
11 Fixed Orthodontic Appliances To cover introduction about fixed orthodontic  appliances and merits and demerits

To cover components of fixed appliance in detail about passive and active components of fixed appliances with detail demonstration with model base.

Must Know
To differentiate between banding vs bonding with merits and demerits Desirable to know
S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
12  

METHODS OF GAINING SPACE

 

  1. About the indications and contraindications of proximal stripping
  2. Know about the procedure
 

must know

 

 

  1. Students should know about the procedure of the proximal stripping
 

desirable to know

S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
13 Expansion in Orthodontics 1]Introduction and history
2]Classification of appliances
3]Rapid maxillary expansion:anatomy, philosophy, indications contraindications, diagnostic aids , effects of RME , Types of appliances, activation schedule , retention following RME ,and SARPE
4] Slow maxillary expansion: types , appliances used, indications
5]Miscellaneous appliances
6]Difference between RME and slow expansion.
 

 

Must know

 

 

 

 

Description of typical expansion schedule
Appliances for mandibular expansion
Desirable to know

 

 

    History of expansion appliances

Surgically Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion

Hybrid expansion appliances

 

 

Nice to know
S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
14  

EXTRACTION IN ORTHODONTICS

 

  1. Student should know different type of extractions
  2. When extractions are needed
 

must know

S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
15  

TREATMENT PLANNING

 

  1. Introduction
  2. Development of problem list
  3. Prioritization of orthodontics problem list
  4. Enlist the treatment objectives and treatment possibilities
Must know
  1. Revaluation

 

Nice to know
S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
16 Deep Bite Definition of deepbite
2.Classify deepbite
3. Etiology
4. Diagnosis
5. Management
Must know
.Describe and compare normal overbite and deepbite.
2.Dental and skeletal deepbite
3.Features and Effects of deepbite
4. Fixed appliances for management of deepbite

 

Desirable to know n
 

1.Role of Mini-implants for Intrusion correction
2.Connecticut arch for intrusion

Nice to know
S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
17  

OPEN BITE

 

  1. Students should know differential diagnosis and etiology of open bite
  2. Skeletal or dental open bite

 

 

must know

 

                   Management of open bite  

Desirable to know

 

 

S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
18

 

Management of Class II Malocclusion

 

a] Types of Class II malocclusion based on Etiology and Diagnostic criteria: habit induced, functional, morphogenetic

 

b] Management based on etiology and stage of development: Preventive & Interceptive

 

 

 

 

Must Know

 

 

 

 

 

c]  Management based on etiology and stage of development: Corrective & Surgical

 

Desirable to Know

 

S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
19 Management of Class III Malocclusion 1]Types of Class III m/o based on Etiology and Diagnostic criteria
2] Types of Class III:True and Pseudo
3]Management based on etiology and stage of development: Growth modulation, camouflage & Surgical correction

 

 

 

Must know

 

1.]Conditions or syndromes where class III is a feature

2.]Detail of chincup and facemask

 

Desirable to know

    1.]Detail of surgical procedures that are used to treat Class III malocclusion.

2.]Camouflage techniques used to treat Class III

3.] Use of mini-implants and zygomatic anchor plates in treatment of Class III .

 

 

 

Nice to know

S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
20  

PRINCIPAL OF SURGICAL ORTHODONTICS

 

  1. Students should be able to know about major and minor surgical procedures
  2. Have a basic idea of surgical procedures like bijaw surgeries, rhinoplasty, cleft surgeries.
 

must know

 

 

  1. Should know different type of extractions

 

nice to know
S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
21

 

Orthodontic Management of Cleft Lip & Palate

a] Definition, Terminology of different cleft types, their incidence, racial & sex predilection.

b] Embryological background

c] Etiology: Genetic, Environmental

d] Classification

e]  Problems faced by cleft patients

f] Management: Prenatal counselling, Neonatal care, feeding appliances, Pre surgical orthopedic procedures, Deciduous dentition stage, Mixed dentition stage, Permanent dentition, Adult stage.

g] Timing of multidisciplinary procedures & protocol

 

 

 

 

Must Know

 

 

h] Goslon yardstick Nice to know
       
S.No Name of topic Teaching Guidelines Domain
22 Retention and Relapse  

1.Definition of retention and relapse
2.Causes of relapse
3.Theorems of retention
4.Removable retainers
5.Fixed Retainers

 

Must know

1.Importance of retention after ortho treatment
3.Different schools of thoughts for retention
4.Factors affecting type and length of retention
5.Types of retention i.e  removable and fixed retainers
Desirable to know
 

1.Different modes of retention for Deep bite, Open bite, Crowding and Spacing
2. Essex Retainer
3.Invisible Retainer

Nice to know

BDS IVth  Year

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

1. General Principles of growth and development

1.Introduction
2.Definitions
3. Methods of studying growth and Methods of gathering data
4.Osteogenesis
5. Theories of  growth

1.Importance of studying growth in Orthodontics
2.Knowledge of normal changes that occur in facial complex
3.How growth can be achieved by various measures
4. To Appraise various theories of growth
1] Defining growth and development
2] Methods of studying growth
3]Methods of gathering data
4]Factors influencing growth
5]Scammon’s and cephalocaudal growth gradient
6]Endochondral and intramembranous ossification
7]Mechanisms of bone growth
8]Principles of growth
9]Wollf’s law of transformation
10]Various theories of growth
11]Difference between primary and secondary cartialage

 

 

 

 

 

1.Didactic Lecture &ppt

2.Pictorial representation of various growth graphs

3.Giving MCQ questions to students at the end of lecture and then discussing answers with them

 

 

2 hours

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

2. Development of craniofacial structures

Prenatal periods of growth

  1. Primordia of craniofacial complex
  2. Prenatal development of craniofacial skeleton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

POSTNATAL GROWTH

1.Postnatal growth of cranial vault and cranial base
2. Post natal growth of maxilla
3. Post natal growth of mandible
4. Rotation of jaw bases

1.Knowledge of basic embryology
2.Understand overview of early weeks of human development .
3.study postnatal growth of face for providing optimal treatment plan.
PRENATAL GROWTH
1)Introduction
2)Prenatal periods of growth
-period of ovum
-period of embryo
-period of fetus
3)Primordia of craniofacial complex
-Fertilization, morula
-Bilamellar disk
-gastrulation
-Trilamellar disk
-Formation of neural crest cells
-Differentiation of mesoderm
-Folding of embryo
-Pharyngeal arches and pouches
4)Prenatal development of craniofacial skeleton
-Neurocranium- Chondrocranium, desmocranium
-Viscerocranium
-Prenatal development of neurocranium
-Capsules and formation of basal cartilages
-Bones of cranial base
-Flexure of cranial base
-Development of cranial vault
-Development of face
-Different processes
-Prenatal growth of maxilla
-Formation of palate- Cleft lip and palate
-Prenatal growth of mandible
-Meckel’s cartilage
-Formation of tongue
-Development of TMJ

POSTNATAL GROWTH
1)Introduction
2]Postnatal development of cranial vault
3)Sutures and fontanella
4)Postnatal growth of cranial base
-Synchondroses
-Cortical drift and remodeling
-sutural growth
5)Postnatal growth of maxilla
-Displacement
-Growth at sutures
-Surface remodeling
-Dimensional changes-height, width and depth
6)Postnatal growth of Mandible
-Dimensional changes- height, width and depth
7]Rotation of jaw bases

1.Didactic Lecture &ppt

2.Video presentation of various stages of development

 

 

2 hours

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

 

3.

 

Development Of Dentition and Occlusion-

– Introduction
– Prenatal    Development of Teeth
– Postnatal Development of Teeth
– Mixed Dentition
– Permanent Dentition
-Trajectories of force

-Wolff’s law of transformation of force

 

Explain the Developmental stage of Dentition and Occlusion
– Explain the type of Dentition and Occlusion
– Discuss all Primary, Mixed and Permanent Dentition
– Discuss sequence and timing of eruption
– Discuss various factors influencing the Development of Dentition and Occlusion like Respiration, Deglutination, Mastication, Speech
– To know type of trajectories on maxilla, vertical, horizontal, mandible.
– To know the Wolff’s Law of transformation of force

  • To cover in detail prenatal development of teeth including bud, cap, bell and root formation stage.
  • To cover postnatal development of predental ,gumpad, and natal and neonatal, deciduous, mixed and permanent dentition.
  • To detail in flush terminal plane, mesial step, distal step, early mesial shift, late mesial shift, Leeway’s space, ugly duckling stage.
  • To cover transient deepbite, dimensional changes of the arch.
  • To cover in detail type of Respiration, type of Deglutination, type of Mastication, Buccinator mechanism.
  • To detail in type of Trajectories :
  • Maxilla

Vertical
Horizontal

  • Mandible

Group discussion

– Quiz

–  3 2 1 method

-Didactic lecture through Power point Presentation.

 

2 hours

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

4. Normal and abnormal function of stomagnathic system To know about
Deglutation
Mastication
Speech
Trajectories of force
Respiration
-Deglutation
a) Infantile swallow
b) Mature
-Mastication
-Buccinator  mechanism
-Trajectories of force

 

Didactic lecture with ppt
Video presentation
1 hour

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

5. Diagnosis

A] Essential Diagnostic Aids

B] Case History

C] Clinical Examination

D]Study Models

E] Model Analysis

F] Cephalometrics

G] Skeletal Maturity Indicators

F] Supplemental Diagnostic Aids

G] Recent Advances in Diagnostic Techniques
 

 

 

1. Classify and Enumerate Essential & Supplemental Diagnostic Aids.

2. List  the relevant questions to be asked while recording case history.

3.  List the important steps of Clinical examination  wrt Orthodontics and the interpretation of the clinical findings

4. Arrive at a Clinical Diagnosis

5. Do a Model Analysis on study models of both mixed & permanent dentition.

6. Do a Cephalometric tracing to measure skeletal & dental deviations from the norm.

7. Discuss and identify the skeletal stages of maturity on a cephalogram.

 

8. Enumerate supplemental diagnostic aids & know their indications.

9. Have a fair idea of the advances in Digital Imaging.

  a] Definition, Importance & classification of Diagnostic aids

b] Case History recording

c ]Clinical examination  wrt Orthodontics ( Extra oral & Intraoral examination)

d] Impression taking

e] Study models

f] Model Analyses( Mixed dentition & Permanent dentition model Analyses)

g] Cephalometrics: History, importance, Cephalometric Landmarks, Reference planes, Analyses(Downs, Steiner , Tweed)

h] Skeletal maturity indicators: Hand wrist  & Cervical vertebrae

i] Supplemental Diagnostic  Aids

 

j] Recent Advances in Diagnostic Techniques

1.Didactic Lecture & PPT

2. Model Based Demonstration: Demonstration of Case history taking ,Clinical Examination & study model fabrication  during clinical posting  for each batch on a variety of cases drawn from the Orthodontic OPD .This will be followed by Top 10 List activity

3. Demonstration: Show parts of an Orthodontic study model and how it can be used for model analysis. Do model analyses on Mixed & permanent dentition study models/ casts during batch wise clinical posting.

3. On Site Activity: Take students to show parts of the Cephalostat & if possible recording of a Cephalogram.

4. Sketch Method: Demonstration of a Lateral Cephalometric tracing and ask students to identify Cephalometric landmarks on the tracing. Demonstration of Cephalometric Analyses during Batch wise Clinical posting.

5. Five word Method to describe the Grading of skeletal maturity on Cephalogram of Growing & non growing patients reflecting the change in shape of Cervical vertebrae with growth.

 

6. Student Interaction Session Students will be given an OPG Xray and they will point out the important observations that can be made on an OPG Xray.

7. Video showing use of an I/O scanner machine to create Virtual models, Dentofacial Imaging with CT and CBCT.

 

5 hours

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

6.

Biomechanical Principles in orthodontic tooth movement.
Whole chapter will be divided in two parts:

A.Biology of Tooth Movement___

B.Mechanics of Tooth Movement

*Introduction
*Periodontal Ligament
*Theories of Tooth Movement
*Stages of Tooth movement
*Orthodontic Remodeling

B.Mechanics  of Tooth Movement
*Introduction
*Force, Stress and Strain
*Moment, Couple
*Tooth movement
*Force Types

1.Introduction to Tooth movement in orthodontics
2.Structure, function and composition of Periodontal ligament.
3.Physiologic tooth movement
4. Theories of orthodontic tooth movement.
5. Histology of tooth movement with mild forces and severe force application.
6. Frontal resorption.
7. Optimum orthodontic tooth movement
8. Stages of orthodontic tooth movement
9. Orthodontic remodelling of bone

 

 

 

 

1.Definition of Force, Stress and Strain, Center of Resistance, Mass, Couple, Center of rotation, Moment.
2. Types of tooth movement.
3. Types of Force

To cover:
1. Role of periodontal ligament in tooth movement
2. Composition of periodontal ligament ( cellular and fibres of periodontal ligament).
3. Physiologic tooth movement
** Tooth movement during mastication
** Tooth movement due to drift of teeth.
4. Theories of tooth movement:
** Pressure tension theory
**Blood flow theory
**Bone bending theory
**Piezoelectric theory.
5. Histology of Tooth movement:
** Changes following light forces
** Changes following Extreme forces
6. Concept of optimum Orthodontic force in tooth movement.
7. Explaining 6 Types of Tooth Movement.
8. Phases of tooth movement:
** Initial phase
**Lag Phase
**Log Phase

 

To Cover:
1. Details of basic concept of force application in tooth movement
2. Why Center of resistance is important for tooth movement.
3. Types of bends given for tooth movement and mechanics behind it.
4.Types of rotation during tooth movement.
5.Types of Forces:
** Continuous force
**Intermittent Force
**Interrupted force

1.Didactic Lecture &ppt
2.Videos showing different types of tooth movement and role of center of resistance during movement:
**Tipping
**Bodily
**Rotation
**Torque
** intrusion
** Extrusion
3.Videos Showing Pressure and Tension areas during tooth movement.
4. Group discussions of force application and underlying mechanics of tooth movement.
2 hours

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

7. Anchorage in Orthodontics 1.Define anchorage and understand the basis behind it
2. Classification of anchorage and Sources of anchorage.
3. Describe the types of Anchorage in detail.
4. Anchorage preparation in fixed orthodontic cases.
4. Anchorage loss Methods to control it.
To cover:
1. Different definitions of anchorage according to different authors.
2. Classification of anchorage based on anatomic units, site of anchorage,number of units, and source of anchorage.
3. Sources of anchorage :
**Intraoral
**Extraoral
** Muscular
4. Types of anchorage
5. Anchorage loss and its importance in detail during treatment
1.Didactic Lecture &ppt
2. Show models
Of various anchorage appliances like TPA, Lingual Arch, Headgear.
3.Videos to demonstrate intraoral anchorage appliances in patients.
4. Group discussions among students to clarify the concept of anchorage.

 

 

2 hrs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

8. Orthodontic Appliances– General Concepts
-classification  of orthodontic Appliances
-indication of removable and functional appliance
– Methods of force application
– materials used  in orthodontic appliances
– preliminary knowledge of acid etching and direct bonding
– To know the definition of orthodontic appliance.
– To know the removable and myofunctional appliance .
– To know the active and passive appliances.
– To know the biological, physical, mechanical, esthetic, hygienic, technical, economic consideration of appliance.
– To know the component of Removable Appliacne.
– To know the different types of materials like impression material, gypsum products, organic polymer, cement,  ceramic and metals, adhesives and bonding agent.
– To cover in detail in Retentive type of clasp, mode of action of clasp like C clasp, Schwarz, Adams, Southend clasp, Duyzing clasp, Delta clasp, Triangular clasp.
– To cover in detail the active components like labial bow, springs, screw and elastics, labial bow types- short, long, split, Robert’s retractor, Reverse loop balial bow, Mill’s Retractor, High labial bow with apron springs, Fitted labial bow, Rickett’s retention bow, Soldered labial bow.
– To cover in detail types of springs like, Finger spring, , T spring, Z spring.
– Detail in screw.
– To cover in detail in anterior bite plane, posterior bite plane, Heat cure acrylic, Self cure acrylic, Acrylization using Thermoplastic Sheets, Instructions to patients after delivering the appliance.
– To cover in detail in Functional appliance like- Activator, Bionator, Tooth borne passive like Activator, Bionator, Herbst Appliance.
– To cover tooth borne active appliance like Bimler’s appliance, Modified Bionator, Kinetor, etc.
– To cover in detail tissue borne passive appliance like Frankel.
– To cover in detail active tissue borne active appliance like- Lip Bumper, Oral screen.
– To cover in detail  orthopaedic changes, Dentoalveolar changes and muscular changes.
– To know in detail about Alginate- composition, strength, viscoelasticity, dimensional stability, compatibility with gypsum, disinfection of alginate.
– To know about Gypsum products, like Impression Plaster 1, Model plaster, Dental stone, Synthetic gypsum.
– To know about Setting time, W:P ratio, manipulation of gypsum product.
– To know about luting cements like zinc phosphate, zinc polycarboxylate, glass inomer cement, resin cement.
– To know about composite based adhesive, light cure adhesion, chemical cure adhesion, dual core adhesion.
– To cover in detail types of stainless steel like ferrite, martenistic, austenitic.
– To cover in detail Welding, Soldering, Flux and Anti-flux.
– Model Based Demonstration.
– Label the diagram ( sketch )

-Group Discussion.

3 hours

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

9  

Myofunctional  Appliances

*Introduction
*Classification
*Treatment Principles
*Components
*Mode of action
*Case Selection
*Removable Functional appliances

 

 

1.Able to Classify myofunctional appliances.
2.Describe Mechanism of action of functional appliances and basis behind it.
3. List the Components of myofunctional appliances.
4. Identify the Cases for practical application.
5. Removable mainly but few fixed functional appliances.

 

 

To cover:
1. Definition and different classification of myofunctional appliances.
2. How functional appliances work to bring about changes.
3. Indications and contraindications.
4.Treatment principles.
5. Activator appliance in detail
6. Twin Block and Frankel appliance components.

 

 

1.Didactic lecture and PPt
2.Videos to show functioning and mechanism of appliance.
3.Quiz Contest in Class
4. Group Discussion
5. Live appliances demonstration in class.

 

 

3 hrs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

11 Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

 

To  list the fixed orthodontic  appliances and merits and demerits

Enumerate the components of fixed appliance in detail about passive and active components of fixed appliances with detail demonstration with model base

 

To differentiate between banding vs bonding with merits and demerits

 

  • Introduction

Merits and demerits

  • Components of fixed appliances
  • Passive components
  • Bands
  • Brackets
  • Buccal tubes
  • Lingual attachments
  • Ligature wires
  • Lock pins
  • Active components
  • Separators
  • Elastic
  • Springs
  • Magnets
  • Banding v/s Bonding

Fixed appliance technique

  • Edge wise
  • Begg
  • Straight wire
  • Tip edge
  • Lingual orthodontics
 

 

Didactec lectures with ppt, Model based demonstration

 

 

Live Demonstration of brackets, bands , ligature wires

 

2 hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

12  

METHODS OF GAINING SPACE

  • Introduction
  • Methods of gaining space
  • Proximal stripping
  • Indications
  • Contraindications
  • Procedure
  • Disadvanatages
  • Arch expansion
  • Extraction
  • Distalization of molars
  • Uprightening of tilted teeth
  • Derotation  of posterior teeth
  • Proclination of anterior teeth

 

 

 

  • Students should know about the procedure of the proximal stripping.
  • About the indications and contraindications of proximal stripping
  • Know about the procedure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • About the proximal stripping
  • Indications of proximal stripping
  • Contraindications of proximal stripping
  • Procedure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Group discussion
  • MCQs
  • Didactic lecture and PPT
  • Describe
  • Color cards
  • Top 10 list

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 hrs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

13 Expansion in Orthodontics

  • Introduction
  • Maxillary expansion – Rapid Palatal Expansion
  • Surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion
  • Slow maxillary expansion
  • Mandibular expansion devices
1.Knowledge of importance of expansion in orthodontics
2. How expansion brings desirable dental and skeletal changes
3. Appliances used to bring about expansion
4.Concept of RME
5.Slow maxillary expansion
6. know how slow expansion is different from rapid expansion
1]Introduction and history
2]Classification of appliances
3]Rapid maxillary expansion:anatomy, philosophy, indications contraindications, diagnostic aids , effects of RME , Types of appliances, activation schedule , retention following RME ,and SARPE
4] Slow maxillary expansion: types , appliances used, indications
5]Miscellaneous appliances
6]Appliances for mandibular expansion
7]Difference between RME and slow expansion.
1.Showing models of patients who have narrow arches.

2.Demonstration of different types of expansion appliances on models

3.Student interactive session
3-2-1:
Asking students to list 3 things they found out , 2 interesting things and 1 question they still have

 

2 hours

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

14  

EXTRACTIONS IN ORTHODONTICS

  • Introduction
  • Different types of extractions
  • Indications of extractions of individual teeth.
  • Wilkinson’s extractions
  • Compensatory extractions
  • Balancing extractions
 

 

  • Student should know different type of extractions
  • When extractions are needed.
 

  • Introduction
  • Different extraction procedures in orthodontics
  • Therapeutic extractions
    -Arch length tooth material discrepancy
    -Correction of sagittal inter arch relationship
    -Abnormal size and form of teeth
    -Skeletal face malocclusions
  • Wilkinson’s extractions
  • Compensatory extractions
  • Serial extractions
  • Phased extractions
  • Enforced extractions
  • Atypical extractions
  • Choice of teeth for extraction
    -Incisors
    -Premolars
    -Canines
    -Molars
 

 

Talk show panel
Study guide
Illustrations
Didactic lecture
Powerpoint presentation
Clickers(response system)

 

 

 

2 hrs

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

15 Treatment planning  

  • Introduction
  • Development of problem list
  • Prioritization of orthodontics problem list
  • Enlist the treatment objectives and treatment possibilities
  • Revaluation
 

  • Able to develop and prioritized the problem list
  • Able to counsel pros and cons of each possibility solution to each problem
  • Evaluation of the treatment objectives

 

 

  • Didactic lecture  and PPT
  • Explain your solution
  • Tagxedo
  • Outline
  • Podcast
  • Pamphlet
 

2 hrs

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Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

16 Deep Bite

*Deepbite
*Classification
*Etiology
*Diagnosis
*Treatment

 

1.Describe normal overbite and deepbite.
2.Classify deepbite
3. Etiology
4. Diagnosis
5. Management
 

To cover:
1. Definition of deepbite
2.Dental and skeletal deepbite
3.Features and Effects of deepbite
4. Removable and Fixed appliances for management of deepbite

 

1.Didactic lecture and PPt
2.Videos to show functioning and mechanism of appliance.
3.Quiz Contest in Class
4. Group Discussion
5. Live appliances demonstration in class.

3 hrs
17  

OPEN BITE

 

  • Principle, differential diagnosis ,  methods and management of open bite
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Classification
  • Features
  • Treatment
  • Retention

 

  • Students should know differential diagnosis and etiology of open bite
  • Skeletal or dental open bite

Management of open bite

  • Introduction
  • Principles
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • -Hereditary with genetic predisposition
  • -Habits
    -Skeletal
    -Dental
  • Classification
    1)Skeletal
    -Unilateral
    -Bilateral
    2)Dental
    -Unilateral
    -Bilateral
    Features of open bite
    -Skeletal,Dental
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment of open bite
    -Removal of etiology
    -Myofunctional
    -Orthodontic corrective therapy
  • Retention -Post open bite
    -causes
    -treatment
Student interaction
Videos
Live demonstration
3-2-1
Compare and contrast
Didactic lecture
Study guide
2 hrs

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

18 Management of Class II Malocclusion
A] Etiology 

B] Classification based on Etiology

C] Treatment: Preventive, Interceptive, Corrective & Surgical.

1.Dicuss the varied etiology of Class II m/o

2. Suggest a suitable treatment plan of a Class II case based on the growth status, growth pattern and Cephalometric findings of the case.

3. Enumerate & Describe various Interceptive Habit breaking & Growth modulating appliances.

4. Know the Indications of various surgical orthodontic techniques for Skeletal ClassII.

a] Types of Class II malocclusion based on Etiology and Diagnostic criteria: habit induced, functional, morphogenetic

 

b] Management based on etiology and stage of development: Interceptive, Corrective& Surgical

1.Didactic lecture & PPT

2. Model Based Demonstration: Show models of  Habit breaking appliances, Functional appliances, headgears

3. Outline Method: Student will represent the management of Class II Malocclusion using a Flow chart  diagram

4. Quiz: Show visuals of Orthodontic cases and student will tell what will be the best modality of treatment for that case.

2 hours

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

19 Management of Class III Malocclusion

1.Introduction
2.Features of Class III
3. Etiology
4. Diagnosis
5.Treatment
6. Pseudo Class III
7. Retention

1.Dicuss the varied etiology of Class IIIm/o
2.Suggest a suitable treatment plan of a Class III case based on the growth status, growth pattern and ceplalometric findings of the case.
3.Know the challenges faced in the treatment
4. Know the Indications of various surgical orthodontic techniques for Skeletal ClassIII
To cover:
1]Types of Class III m/o based on Etiology and Diagnostic criteria
2] Types of Class III:True and Pseudo
3]Management based on etiology and stage of development: Growth modulation, camouflage & Surgical correction
1.Ppt discussing features and etiology

2.Show various appliances, chin cup , facemask

3.Video of how these appliances work and bring facial changes

4. Quiz ; Show visuals of Orthodontic cases and student will tell what will be the best modality of treatment for that case.

1 hour

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

20 PRINCIPLES OF SURGICAL ORTHODONTICS

  • Topics
    Surgical Orthodontics
    -Introduction
  • -Different surgical procedures
    i) Minor
    ii) Major
    -Extractions
    -Surgical uncovering of teeth
    -Frenectomy
    -SupracrestalFibrotomy
    -Corticotomy
 

  • Students should be able to know about major and minor surgical procedures
  • Have a basic idea of surgical procedures like bijaw surgeries, rhinoplasty, cleft surgeries.
  • Should know different type of extractions
  • Treatment of deep bite and open bite.
 

  • Introduction to surgical procedure
    Minor surgical procedures
  • Extractions
  • Surgical uncovering of unerupted teeth
  • Frenectomy
  • Supracrestalfibrotomy
  • Transplantation of teeth
  • Corticotomy
  • Major surgical procedures
  • Orthognathic surgeries
  • Correction of jaws
  • Facial aesthetic surgeries like rhinoplasty, blehpharoplasty
  • Facial reconstruction surgeries like cleft palate and lip repair surgeries
  • Treatment of open bite
    -Dentoalveolar open bite
    -Skeletal open bite with Angle’s class I or II
    -Skeletal open bite with Angle’s class III
  • Treatment of deep bite
  • Treatment of cross bite
 

  • The 411
  • Invent the quiz
  • Clickers ( response system )
  • Rate understanding
  • Didactic lecture and PPT
  • Illustrations
  • Explaining
 

2 hrs

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

21 Cleft Lip & Palate

A] Incidence & prevalence

B]Etiopathogenesis of  CLP

C] Accepted Terminology and Important Classifications

 

D] Problems faced by cleft patients

E] Management protocol

 

1. Define cleft, be aware of its prevalence in different regions of the world

2. Discuss etiopathogenesis of CLP.

3. Classify cleft types and be familiar with currently accepted terminologies.

4. Describe the Orthodontic management at different stages of dental & jaw development along with multidisciplinary intervention at the suitable time.

5.  Understand the problems encountered by Cleft individuals and hence the need for a multi disciplinary approach & the role of the orthodontist.

6. Explain how the Goslon yardstick is used to assess the severity of m/o in a cleft patient and assess the outcome of the treatment rendered.

a] Definition, Terminology of different cleft types, their incidence, racial & sex predilection.

b] Embryological background

c] Etiology: Genetic, Environmental

d] Classification

e]  Problems faced by cleft patients

f] Management: Prenatal counselling, Neonatal care, feeding appliances, Pre surgical orthopedic procedures, Deciduous dentition stage, Mixed dentition stage, Permanent dentition, Adult stage.

g] Timing of multidisciplinary procedures & protocol

 

h] Goslon yardstick

1. Didactic Lecture & PPT.

2.Model Based Demonstration: Show models of cleft cases with arch collapse

3.Live Demonstration: Show cases of Cleft patients being treated by postgraduates in the batchwise clinical postings

 

4. Site visit: Take students to a Cleft clinic / Speech clinic.

 

 

 

5. Group Discussions on Problems faced by Cleft individuals and the Multi disciplinary approach to manage them. Why the Orthodontist is considered the most suitable person to Coordinate the Multidisciplinary approach.

3 hours

S.No

Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

22 Retention and Relapse

*Introduction
*Retention
*Causes of relapse
*Theorems of retention
*Retention appliance

 

.Describe Retention and relapse
2.Causes of relapse
3.Theorems of retention
4.Removable retainers
5.Fixed Retainers

 

To Cover:
1.Definition of retention and relapse
2. Importance of retention after ortho treatment
3.Different schools of thoughts for retention
4.Factors affecting type and length of retention
5.Types of retention i.e  removable and fixed retainers
Didactic lecture  and PPT
2.Models demo in class
3. Videos showing fabrication of ortho Hawley retainers.
4. Wire bending demo for retainers
5. Quiz contest
6. Group Discussions
2 hrs