Curriculum

Orthodontics

Third Year, BDS

 

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Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

1. Introduction To Orthodontics and History of Orthodontics

*Definition
*Aims and objectives
*Branches of    Orthodontics
*Historical Aspects

1. Explain what is orthodontics.  And why we need to undergo Orthodontic treatment.
2.  Identify aims and objectives of Orthodontic  Treatment.
3. What are the changes brought about by Orthodontic treatment i.e Orthodontic and Orthopedic changes.
4. Understanding the concept of different  branches of orthodontics.
5. Brief History showing the Evolution of Orthodontics from ancient times till today.
6. Various Fixed and removable orthodontic  appliances available for various malocclusions.
To cover:
1. Definition of Orthodontics as per BSSO. And importance of Orthodontic treatment in patients.
2.Consequences of untreated orthodontic  treatment inpatients.
3.Jacksons triad of aims and objectives of orthodontics.
4. Scope of Orthodontic treatment i.e Changes in skeletal and soft tissues brought about by treatment.
5. Branches of orthodontics and their role in correction of malocclusion.
6. Historical background of Orthodontics.

 

1. Didactic Lecture & PPT
2. Display of Live removable appliances like Hawleys appliance, Anterior bite plate, Posterior bite plate and Myofunctional appliances to students.
3.Demonstration of Types of Fixed braces in Orthodontics i.e Stainless steel and Ceramic braces.
2 hrs

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Methodology

Time

2. Malocclusion –In general

 

To cover introduction definition of occlusion.
Basic terminologies about occlusion.
Types of cusp and compensatory curves.
Detail about Andrew Six key of normal occlusion

 

  1. Introduction

Definition of occlusion

  1. Stomatognathic system
  2. Static occlusion
  3. Dynamic occlusion
  4. Basic terminologies
  5. Centric relation
  6. Centric occlusion
  7. Centric contacts
  8. Eccentric movements and occlusion
  9. Types of cusps and their arrangement
  10. Functional & non functional cusps
  11. Incisal guidance & occlusal guidance
  12. Imaginary occlusion planes & compensatory curves
  13. Curve of spee
  14. Reverse curve of spee
  15.  Curve of Wilson
  16. Curve of monsoon

Andrew’s  six key of normal occlusion

 

Didactic lectures through ppt
Video presentation
Model based demonstration
Quiz
1 hour

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Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

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Time

 

3.

Classification of malocclusion Able to classify various malocclusion in different planes, dental , skeletal

Diagnose features of different malocclusion

Able to classify malocclusion given by different authors with their merits and demerits

Malocclusion terminologies
A)Dental
1)Intraarch

  1. Incination
  2. Displacements
  3. Rotations
  4. Transpositions

2)Interarch

  1. Saggital
  2. Vertical
  3. Transverse

B)Skeletal

  1. Saggital
  2. Vertical
  3. Transverse

C)Both
Various authors classifications

  1. Angle’s classification
  2. Class I and its features

b)  Class II Div I
Class II Div II

  1. Class III

True
Pseudo

  1. Dewey’s modification of Angle’s classification
  2. Lischer’s classification
  3. Bennetts classification
  4. Salzmann classification
  5. Simon’s classification
  6. Ackerman Proffit classification
  7. Bimaxillary protrusion
Didactic lectures through ppt and video presentation

-MCQ
-Model based demonstration
-Quiz

1 hour

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Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

4. Aetiology of Malocclusion Able to enumerate various authors classification
Various factors i.e. general & local factors
Different systems of classification of etiology of malocclusion
-White & Gardner
-Salzmann
-Moyers
-Graber

Etiology of malocclusion
A)General factors
1) Hereditary
2) Congenital defects
3) Environmental
a) Prenatal
b) Postnatal
4) Predisposing  metabolic & climate disease
a) Endocrine        imbalance
b) Metabolic disturbances
c) Infectious disease
5) Dietary problems
6) Abnormal pressure habits & functional aberrations
7) Posture
8) Trauma & accidents
B) Local factors
Various anomalies

  1. No. of teeth
  2. Tooth size
  3. Tooth shape
  4. Labial frenum
  5. Premature loss of deciduous teeth
  6. Prolonged retention
  7. Delayed eruption of permanent teeth
  8. Abnormal eruptive path
  9. Ankylosis
  10. Dental caries
Didactic  lectures with ppt

-Table & graph presentation

1 hour

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Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

5 Preventive Orthodontics

  1. Introduction
  2. Definition
  3. Aim of preventive orthodontics
  4. Procedures undertaken
  5. Space maintainers

 

1. Meaning and importance of Preventive Orthodontics
2.  Knowledge of procedures that can be undertaken for accomplishment of Preventive Orthodontics
3. Importance of space maintenance

 

To cover:
1]Introduction
2]Aim
3]Procedures that can be undertaken without use of appliances and with the use of appliances.
4] Factors to be considered for space maintenance
5] Indication, Contraindication and requirements of Space Maintainers
6]Classification of Space maintainers
7]Detail of every space maintainer

 

1. Didactic Lecture & PPT involving pictorial representation.

2.Demonstration of various space maintainers on models

3.Group discussion where students will be divided in groups and will be asked pre-assigned topics of preventive orthodontics

 

2 hours

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Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

6. Interceptive Orthodontics

A] Serial Extraction

B] Space Regaining

C] Correction of developing cross bite.

D] Habit Control

F] Muscle exercises

 

G]Growth modulation

 

1. Enumerate different procedures / techniques undertaken in Interceptive Orthodontics ; their indications & contraindications
2. Enumerate & describe some space regaining appliances
3. Enumerate & describe some appliances for correction of developing anterior cross bite and understand which design is suitable for a given individual.
4. Understand the pathogenesis of habit induced m/o, indications and C/I of habit breaking appliances.

5. Importance of muscle exercises.
6. Understand concept of growth modification and based on type of malocclusion explain the components of the growth modifying device that will suitably redirect growth favourably in the patient.
7.Understand the importance of regular orthodontic checkups  for children after age of 7yrs to : detect deviations in timings of tooth exfoliation and eruption, detect & intercept developmental abnormalities by eliminating the various local & general etiologic factors of m/o.

 

a]  Serial extraction: Definition, Indications, C/I Tweed,  & Nance Techniques ,Advantages , Disadvantages of each method.

b] Space regaining appliances: Fixed & Removable

c] Correction of developing Anterior crossbite: dentoalveolar, functional, skeletal.
d] Interception of habits: Thumb sucking, tongue thrusting & Mouth breathing

 

e] Muscle exercises to improve muscle tone: clenching, lip & tongue exercises

f] Growth modulating techniques for skeletal class II & Class III malocclusions

g] Removal of soft tissue or bony barrier to enable eruption of teeth

1. Didactic Lecture & PPT

2. Model Based Demonstration
Show models of Habit breaking appliances, Space regaining appliances, Appliances to correct anterior cross bite,Functional appliances, Headgears

3. Student Interaction Session: Show cases in clinical postings of Pedodontic/ Orthodontic cases to discuss the various Types of Interceptive treatment required for that patient.

4. Explain Your Solution/ Treatment Plan Method:  Student will be shown cases and they will outline the treatment plan.

3 hours

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Topic

Learning Objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

 

7

Removable Orthodontic Appliances

  1. Introduction
  2. General principles of removable appliances
  3. Components
  4. Base plate , acrylisation
  5. Clinical management
1.Familiarise with the removable appliances their uses and their components.

2.Identify cases where removable appliances are indicated.

 

To cover:
1]Principles of removable appliances
2]Components
3]Advantages and disadvantages
4] Explanation of retentive components
5]Types of clasps
6] Labial bows, uses, types and selection
7] Springs
Parts, Classification, requisites, force systems, design and types
8] Screws
9]Elastics
10] Baseplate and acrylisation
11]Clinical management of Removable Appliances

 

1.Demonstration of different types of springs, clasps and labial bows  on models

2.Showing slides of photographs of patients where removable appliances are helpful

3.Sketch method: showing sketches of different clasps, springs and bows and asking students to identify them.

2 hours